for an introduction to what happened in Wall street read this essay from the Federal Reserve history
More detailed is this working paper from Mark Carlson.
Library of Congress has a brief history plus a bibliography of basic readings taken from its colections.
There is a broader history of stock market crises from CFA institute
For some contemporary accounts see:
Report of the Presidential Task Force on Market Mechanisms : submitted to The President of the United States, The Secretary of the Treasury, and The Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. Official US government treasury report 1988.
Shiller, Robert. “Portfolio Insurance and Other Investor Fashions as Factors in the 1987 Stock Market Crash” NBER Macroeconomics Annual 3 (1988): 287-97.
The October 1987 Market Break a speech - remarks given by David Ruder of the US Securitiies and exchange commission in 1988 on the impact on US japanese securities regulation.
Guardian archive photographs from 1987.
30th anniversary analysis
Wall Street Journal also has a video of oral history recollections.
Search for more references on the BIS Central Bank research hub.